From 0 to glTF with WebGPU: The First Triangle

WebGPU is a modern graphics API for the web, in development by the major browser vendors. When compared to WebGL, WebGPU provides more direct control over the GPU to allow applications to leverage the hardware more efficiently, similar to Vulkan and DirectX 12. WebGPU also exposes additional GPU capabilities not available in WebGL, such as compute shaders and storage buffers, enabling powerful GPU compute applications to run on the web. As with the switch from OpenGL to Vulkan, WebGPU exposes more complexity to the user than WebGL, though the API strikes a good balance between complexity and usability, and overall is quite nice to work with. In this series, we’ll learn the key aspects of WebGPU from the ground up, with the goal of going from zero to a basic glTF model renderer. This post marks our initial step on this journey, where we’ll setup a WebGPU context and get a triangle on the screen.

Getting a WebGPU Context

The first step to working with WebGPU is to setup a browser with it enabled. Chrome, Firefox, and Safari’s implementations are still in progress, and as such we need to use the corresponding nightly browsers provided by the vendors. At the time of writing, I’ve found that Chrome Canary has the most complete implementation, and recommend using it for development. You’ll also need to enable the WebGPU feature in the nightly browser, following the guides here. Since browser support is still in progress, you’ll want to disable WebGPU during regular web browsing. You can check if you’ve got WebGPU enabled by jumping to the bottom of this post, where you should see the triangle we’re going to be rendering. If WebGPU isn’t enabled, you’ll see an error message instead.

The triangle renderer we’ll implement in this post will work in both Chrome Canary and Firefox Nightly; however, the WebGPU implementation in Safari Technology Preview looks to possibly be on an older version of the spec, and has some differences in default parameters and the vertex buffer specificiation APIs. Thus, the code we discuss here will not work in Safari for now, but can be made to work with some smaller tweaks.

The initial setup of our WebGPU rendering context is similar to WebGL. Our webpage will have a canvas to display our rendered image, and load our rendering code from render.js.

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <!-- The canvas to display our renderer output on -->
    <canvas id="webgpu-canvas" width="640" height="480"></canvas>
    <script src="render.js"></script>

A number of the APIs used to interact with the GPU are async, thus we’ll place our rendering code inside an async function which is executed when the script is loaded. Our first step is to get a GPUAdapter from the WebGPU API. Each adapter represents a GPU on the machine and the browser’s implementation of WebGPU on top of that GPU. We can then request a GPUDevice from the adapter, which gives us a context to work with the hardware. The GPUDevice provides APIs to create GPU objects such as buffers and textures, and execute commands on the device. The distinction between the GPUAdapter and GPUDevice is similar to that of VkPhysicalDevice and VkDevice in Vulkan. As with WebGL, we need a context for the canvas which will be used to display our rendered image. To use WebGPU with the canvas, we request a gpupresent context (Safari calls it a gpu context). After this setup, we can load our shaders and vertex data, configure our render targets, and build our render pipeline, to draw our triangle!

(async () => {
    if (!navigator.gpu) {
        alert("WebGPU is not supported/enabled in your browser");

    // Get a GPU device to render with
    var adapter = await navigator.gpu.requestAdapter();
    var device = await adapter.requestDevice();

    // Get a context to display our rendered image on the canvas
    var canvas = document.getElementById("webgpu-canvas");
    var context = canvas.getContext("gpupresent");

    // Setup shader modules
    // ....

    // Specify vertex data
    // ....

    // Setup render outputs
    // ....

    // Create render pipeline
    // ....

    // Render!
    // ....

The WebGPU Rendering Pipeline

The WebGPU rendering pipeline consists of two programmable stages: the vertex shader and the fragment shader, similar to WebGL. WebGPU also adds support for compute shaders, which exist outside the rendering pipeline.

Figure 1: The rendering pipeline in WebGPU consists of two programmable shader stages: the vertex shader, responsible for transforming input vertices into clip space, and the fragment shader, responsible for shading the pixels covered by each triangle.

To render our triangle, we’ll need to configure such a pipeline, specifying our shaders, vertex attribute configuration, etc. In WebGPU, this pipeline takes the form of a concrete object, the GPURenderPipeline, which specifies the different pieces of the pipeline. The configuration of the components of this pipeline (e.g., the shaders, vertex state, render output state, etc.) are fixed, allowing the GPU to better optimize rendering for the pipeline. The buffers or textures bound to the corresponding inputs or outputs can be changed; however, the number of inputs and outputs, and their types, etc. cannot be changed. This is in contrast to WebGL, where the pipeline state for a draw is implicitly specified through modifying a global state machine, and the shaders, vertex state, etc., can be swapped out at any time between draw calls, making it challenging to optimize the pipeline.

Shader Modules

Our first step in creating the pipeline is to create the vertex and fragment shader modules, which will be executed in the pipeline. WebGPU takes shaders in the form of SPV bytecode, which can either be compiled from GLSL in the browser by shipping a GLSL compiler with your application, or compiled to SPV bytecode ahead of time and fetched from the server or embedded in the application code. We’ll take the embedded route, and use the glslc compiler provided with the Vulkan SDK to compile our GLSL shaders to SPV.

The GLSL shaders for rendering our triangle are shown below. Our vertex shader will take two inputs: the triangle position and a color, and pass this color to the fragment shader. The fragment shader will take this color as an input and write it out to the first render target.

// Vertex shader
#version 450 core

// Inputs: position and color
layout(location = 0) in vec4 pos;
layout(location = 1) in vec4 vcolor;

// Outputs: color passed to fragment shader
layout(location = 0) out vec4 fcolor;

void main(void) {
    fcolor = vcolor;
    gl_Position = pos;
// Fragment shader
#version 450 core

// Input: fragment color
layout(location = 0) in vec4 fcolor;

// Output: fragment color
layout(location = 0) out vec4 color;

void main(void) {
    color = fcolor;

To embed our SPV bytecode JavaScript, we’ll use the same approach for embedding it in C or C++ programs. We compile the shaders to SPV using glslc and output the bytecode as a C array (-mfmt=c). The compiler will output our shader as an array of uint32’s which can be embedded into the program as an array variable. In JavaScript, we can embed this array as a Uint32Array variable. The shader compilation and output as an embedded Uint32Array is performed by the Python script below. First, the shader is compiled to SPV and output to a.spv, using the C array output format. The script then reads the array in this file and generates a JS snippet to create a Uint32Array containing the bytecode and writes it to stdout.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import sys
import os
import subprocess

if len(sys.argv) < 4:
    print("Usage <glslc> <shader> <var_name> [glslc_args...]")

glslc = sys.argv[1]
shader = sys.argv[2]
var_name = sys.argv[3]

compiled_shader = ""
args = [glslc, shader, "-mfmt=c"]
if len(sys.argv) > 4:

with open("a.spv", "r") as f:
    compiled_code =
    compiled_shader = "const " + var_name + " = new Uint32Array([" + compiled_code[1:-2] + "]);\n"


To compile a shader you can run the script and pass the glslc compiler, your shader, and the variable name to use for the array. The compiled shader bytecode array will be printed to the console.

python3 ./ glslc.exe ./triangle.vert triangle_vert_spv

We can then paste the embedded SPV arrays into our code and use them to create shader modules. A shader module is created by calling createShaderModule on our GPUDevice. The method takes an object containing the parameters, and expects that the code member of the object refers to our desired SPV bytecode. Each shader module will be used in the pipeline as part of a GPUProgrammableStageDescriptor, which specifies a shader module and entry point function to call in the shader.

// Setup shader modules

// Embedded SPV bytecode for our shaders
const triangle_vert_spv = new Uint32Array([/* .... */]);
const triangle_frag_spv = new Uint32Array([/* .... */]);

var vertModule = device.createShaderModule({code: triangle_vert_spv});
var vertexStage =  {
    module: vertModule,
    entryPoint: "main"

var fragModule = device.createShaderModule({code: triangle_frag_spv});
var fragmentStage =  {
    module: fragModule,
    entryPoint: "main"

Although embedding the shader bytecode is convenient, if many variants of the shader need to be compiled and embedded (e.g., to handle different model properties or material configurations), embedding them all can significantly increase your application download size. In this case, it would be better to store the different compiled variants separately on the server and fetch them as needed using additional web requests.

Specifying Vertex Data

Next, we’ll specify the vertex data for our triangle. We’ll specify both the vertex positions and colors in a single buffer, with the positions and colors interleaved with each other. Each position and color will be stored as a float4. First, we allocate and map a buffer on the device with enough room to store the vertex data, using createBuffer. This method takes the size (in bytes) of the buffer we want to create and a set of flags or’d together specifying the desired usage modes of the buffer. We specify the buffer should be mapped when it’s created by setting the mappedAtCreation parameter.

createBuffer returns the GPUBuffer and an ArrayBuffer which we can use to upload data into the buffer. To write our vertex data we create a Float32Array view of the array buffer and set the data through this view. Finally, we have to unmap the buffer before using it later in rendering.

// Specify vertex data
// Allocate room for the vertex data: 3 vertices, each with 2 float4's
var dataBuf = device.createBuffer({
    size: 3 * 2 * 4 * 4,
    usage: GPUBufferUsage.VERTEX,
    mappedAtCreation: true

// Interleaved positions and colors
new Float32Array(dataBuf.getMappedRange()).set([
    1, -1, 0, 1,  // position
    1, 0, 0, 1,   // color
    -1, -1, 0, 1, // position
    0, 1, 0, 1,   // color
    0, 1, 0, 1,   // position
    0, 0, 1, 1,   // color

In the rendering pipeline, we’ll specify an array of GPUVertexBufferLayoutDescriptor objects, describing the input buffers containing vertex data and the attributes within them. The attributes are described with an array of GPUVertexAttributeDescriptor objects set on each buffer descriptor. This array is passed as the vertexBuffers member of the GPUVertexStateDescriptor object. In this example, we have a single buffer containing the interleaved attributes of each vertex. Thus, the stride between elements is 32 bytes (2 float4), and the buffer specifies two float4 attributes. The first attribute is the position, and is sent to shader input location 0. The second is the color, and is sent to shader input location 1.

WebGPU’s model for specifying vertex buffers and attributes follows that of D3D12 and Vulkan, where vertex buffers are bound to input slots and provide some set of vertex attributes, illustrated below. From a D3D12 view, the vertexBuffers member maps to the array of D3D12_INPUT_ELEMENT_DESC structures passed through the D3D12_INPUT_LAYOUT_DESC when creating a graphics pipeline. From a Vulkan view, the vertexBuffers member maps directly to the VkPipelineVertexInputStateCreateInfo structure passed when creating a graphics pipeline.

Figure 2: Providing vertex attributes for our triangle to the input assembler through buffers. Our attributes are read from the buffer bound to input slot 0 and passed to the specified shader input locations, using the strides and offsets specified for the input slot and attributes.
// Specify vertex buffer input slots and the attributes provided by those buffers
var vertexState = {
    vertexBuffers: [
            arrayStride: 2 * 4 * 4,
            attributes: [
                    format: "float4",
                    offset: 0,
                    shaderLocation: 0
                    format: "float4",
                    offset: 4 * 4,
                    shaderLocation: 1

Writing Rendering Outputs

Next we’ll create a swap chain and specify where the results output from our fragment shader should be written. To display the images on our canvas, we need a swap chain associated with its context. The swap chain will let us rotate through the images being displayed on the canvas, rendering to a buffer which is not visible while another is shown (i.e., double-buffering). We create a swap chain by specifying the desired image format and texture usage. The swap chain will create one or more textures for us, sized to match the canvas they’ll be displayed on. Since we’ll be rendering directly to the swap chain textures, we specify that they’ll be used as output attachments.

// Setup render outputs
var swapChainFormat = "bgra8unorm";
var swapChain = context.configureSwapChain({
    device: device,
    format: swapChainFormat,
    usage: GPUTextureUsage.OUTPUT_ATTACHMENT

Although in this example we’re just drawing a single triangle, we’ll still create and use a depth texture since we’ll need it later on. The depth texture is created as a regular texture, specifying the size, format, and usage. As before, we’ll be rendering directly to this texture and thus specify it will be used as an output attachment.

var depthFormat = "depth24plus-stencil8";
var depthTexture = device.createTexture({
    size: {
        width: canvas.width,
        height: canvas.height,
        depth: 1
    format: depthFormat,
    usage: GPUTextureUsage.OUTPUT_ATTACHMENT

Creating the Rendering Pipeline

Finally, we can create the rendering pipeline that combines our shaders, vertex attributes, and output configuration, which we can use to render our triangle. The rendering pipeline description is passed through a GPURenderPipelineDescriptor object, passed to createRenderPipeline. The final pieces required to create the rendering pipeline are the pipeline layout, which specifies the bind group layouts used by the pipeline; and the color and depth states, specifying the configuration used to write the shader outputs. We won’t need bind groups in this example, so we can make a pipeline layout which specifies that no bind groups will be used.

The color states behave similar to the input assembler’s input slots. We specify an array of GPUColorStateDescriptor, which describe the set of output slots and texture format that will be bound to them. During rendering, we attach textures to these slots to write shader outputs to them. Our fragment shader has a single output slot for the color data, which we’ll write directly to the swap chain image. Thus, we specify a single color state for an image with the swap chain format. We’ll also use our depth buffer, and specify the depth state describing how the depth buffer should be used.

// Create render pipeline
var layout = device.createPipelineLayout({bindGroupLayouts: []});

var renderPipeline = device.createRenderPipeline({
    layout: layout,
    vertexStage: vertexStage,
    fragmentStage: fragmentStage,
    primitiveTopology: "triangle-list",
    vertexState: vertexState,
    colorStates: [{
        format: swapChainFormat
    depthStencilState: {
        format: depthFormat,
        depthWriteEnabled: true,
        depthCompare: "less"


Rendering in WebGPU takes place during a Render Pass, which is described through a GPURenderPassDescriptor. The render pass descriptor specifies the images to bind to the output slots written from the fragment shader, and optionally a depth buffer and the occlusion query set. The color and depth attachments specified must match the color and depth states specified for the render pipelines used in the render pass. Our fragment shader writes to a single output slot, the object color, which we’ll write to the current swap chain image. As the image will change each frame to the current swap chain image, we don’t set it just yet.

var renderPassDesc = {
    colorAttachments: [{
        attachment: undefined,
        loadValue: [0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 1]
    depthStencilAttachment: {
        attachment: depthTexture.createView(),
        depthLoadValue: 1.0,
        depthStoreOp: "store",
        stencilLoadValue: 0,
        stencilStoreOp: "store"

All that’s left to do is write our rendering loop, and pass it to requestAnimationFrame to call it each frame to update the image. To record and submit GPU commands, we use a GPUCommandEncoder. The command encoder can be used to prerecord and command buffers that can be submitted multiple times to the GPU, or rerecord and submit each frame. As we’ll be changing the render pass color attachment each frame, we’ll be rerecording and submitting the command buffer each frame.

For each frame, we get the latest swap chain image which we should write rendering outputs to and set this as our output color attachment image. We then create a command encoder to record our rendering commands. We begin the render pass by calling beginRenderPass and passing our render pass descriptor to get back a GPURenderPassEncoder, that will allow us to record rendering commands. We can then set the render pipeline to use, bind our vertex buffers to the corresponding input slots, draw the triangle, and end the render pass. To get a command buffer which can be submitted to the GPU for execution we call finish on the command encoder. The returned command buffer is then passed to the device for execution. After the command buffer is run our triangle will be written to the swap chain image and displayed on the canvas as shown below!

// Render!
var frame = function() {
    // Update the color output image to the current swap chain render target
    renderPassDesc.colorAttachments[0].attachment = swapChain.getCurrentTexture().createView();

    var commandEncoder = device.createCommandEncoder();
    var renderPass = commandEncoder.beginRenderPass(renderPassDesc);

    renderPass.setVertexBuffer(0, dataBuf);
    renderPass.draw(3, 1, 0, 0);


Figure 3: Our triangle, rendered with WebGPU.

Wrapping Up

With our first triangle on screen, we’re well on our way to getting a basic glTF model viewer together. In the next post, we’ll look at how to pass additional data to our shaders (e.g., uniform buffers), using bind groups. If you run into issues getting the example to work, check out the code for rendering the triangle in Figure 3, or get in touch via Twitter or email.

Although WebGPU is in its early stages, here are a few useful resources which are also worth checking out:

Update 8/24

Updated from device.createBufferMapped to device.createBuffer with the mappedAtCreation parameter set. See the corresponding Dawn PSA about these changes in Chrome and WebGPU.

Published: 15 June 2020